Full text of “Vakyapadiya”. See other formats. STUDIES IN THE VAKYAPADlYA VOL I THE VAKYAPADlYA Critical Text of Cantos I and II [ with English. The Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari (5th c. CE), a treatise in three books (kāṇḍas) on the philosophy of language, belonging to the Pāṇinian school of grammar. Bhartrhari: Vakyapadiya Input by Yves Ramseier PLAIN TEXT VERSION. THIS GRETIL TEXT FILE IS FOR REFERENCE PURPOSES ONLY! COPYRIGHT AND .

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Sabda is the cause that produces the intended meaning. There were those who supported the Sphota-vada ; and, there were many others who criticized and opposed it bitterly. Further, the nourishing and life-supporting rivers too are compared to cows e.

He compares the transformation of Sabdain three stages, with the manifestation of the Universe. There could be vagueness initially; but, the perception could improve as one tries to gain clarity of the object. One cannot be without the other. Three quarters of the language remains hidden in the cave, while the fourth part is visible in the created world Rig Veda: For instance; he opens the Vakyapadiya with a series of well defined statements which he plans to elaborate and defend later in work.

The approach adopted by Bhartrhari in explaining the process of true cognition is significantly different from that of the other Schools. Those audible sounds through their divisions and time sequence, produced one after another by the speech organs, act as means upaya or as vehicles to transport the intent of the speaker. Thought anchors language; and, the language anchors thought.

Vac is variously referred to — Syllable akshara or Varnaword Sabdasentence vakyaspeech Vachyavoice Nada or Dhvanilanguage bhasha and literature Sahitya. But, somehow, those who opposed the Sphota-vada not only outnumbered its supporters but also were more influential. Of these, the first two goddesses are said to be personifications of the sound of thunder, whereas the goddess Vac is a deity of speech or sounds uttered or produced by earthly beings. Thus, for him, language is the manifestation of Brahman; and, it constitutes the world.


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Vakyapadiga works out a scheme, through the Anangi-bhava, the relation of the parts to the whole, the application of which to Time is one his unique contributions. Please read our Privacy Policy for details.

The beauty of Sarasvathi is praised through several attributes, such as: Thus, Vac is the word principle that gives expression to the latent or un-manifest thoughts, feelings and impulses. To support that argument, it was pointed out that the explanatory Notes Tika or Vritti prepared by Bhartrhari himself covered only the first two Khanda -s related to the key theories of Sabda Brahman and the S phota.

On it depend all the different kinds of changes sad bhaba-vikarahwhich project multiplicity. Language is not merely the vehicle of meaning or of thought. Now, the articulated word comes out in succession; and, gives substance and forms to ones thoughts. Sri Sayana, in his Bhashya on Taittiriya-Brahmana, 2.

As regards inference, he points out that inference, by itself, is an inadequate of source reliable of knowledge Pramana. He says that when a person utters a sound ka with the intention of saying Kamalam a lotuswe know that he is trying to say a word beginning with Ka.

The alternate title of the Book is therefore Tri-Kandia book of three Cantos. It is through the transformation of the eternal syllable aksharam that the world precedes.

Sanskrit Manuscripts : Vākyapadīya

Vac is intimately associated with the Rishi s and the riks verses that articulate or capture the truths of their visions. Madhyama tu antahs-amnivesini parigrihita-krameva buddhi-matropadana sukshma prana-vrtti-anugata. And, that also takes care of the objections raised by the Mimamasa School which accused the Sphota of being a mere guesswork.

Bhartrhari begins his discussion on words and meaning VP: Sarasvathi subhage vajinlvati satyavachase bhare matim. The distinguished scholar Harold Coward, in the preface to his work on Bhartrhari writes: An entire Sukta RV.


It regulates the world through prevention pratibhandha and permission abhyanujna. For Bhartrhari, the Brahman, the Absolute, without a sequence or diversity, is analogous to Sabda or language. According to Sri Sankara, the error, if it is to be overcome, must be completely and effectively replaced at once by true knowledge.

Nada in Tantra as also in the theories of Indian music was elevated to the vakyapadiha concept of a very high order as Nada Brahman. Hence it may be considered that the root which is to be re-duplicated is pa — thus satisfying the condition for VI.

Sometimes the viewpoints are just enumerated. But, these changing sequences do not represent the true nature of Time. But then, how could something which no longer is here can be given a name? That Shakthi of the Brahman is expressed through real meaning-bearing- words.

Bhartrhari: Vakyapadiya

According to Pandit Sri K. That is, for the purpose of the operation of re-duplication vakyyapadiya should consider that the a is still there. The Tandya Brahmana identifies Sarasvathi with Vac, the speech in the form of sound sabda or dhvani.

The first one is the thought that flashes and takes a form within. But, they are indeed part and parcel of one and the same single entity — the sentence which vakyapadiy out, in full, the intention of the speaker.

It is an intention to convey a certain meaning. Vac is even extolled as having penetrated vakyapwdiya and heaven, holding together all existence. It is compared to a rope or a chain with many knots. He perhaps lived during the declining period of the Guptas when India was being invaded by Huns in the North.